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Overview of Industrial Switch Interface Types
As a necessary product in the industrial field, industrial switches also exist in the wide area network, but it is difficult for us to see this kind of industrial switches, so here we still mainly use our common LAN industrial switches as an example to introduce various interfaces of industrial switches and connection method. In the local area network, the industrial switch is used as the centralized connection device of the local area network. By studying the main network types of the local area network and the development process of the transmission medium, we have concluded that there are about 5 types of interfaces: 1. Twisted pair RJ-45 interface, 2. Optical fiber Interface, 3. AUI interface and BNC, 4. Console interface, 5. FDDI interface.
1. Twisted pair RJ-45 interface
This is the most widely used interface type that we see more, and it belongs to the twisted pair Ethernet interface type. It is not only used in the most basic 10Base-T Ethernet interface network, but also in the current popular 100Base-TX fast Ethernet interface and 1000Base-TX Gigabit Ethernet.
Although the transmission media they use are all twisted pair types, they use different versions of twisted pair types, such as the category 3 line used by 10Base-T at the beginning to the 1000Base-TX Gigabit network card speed. Category 6 lines, 100Base-TX in the middle is the so-called Category 5 and Super Category 5 lines. Of course, you can also use Category 6 lines. The appearance of this RJ-45 interface is absolutely the same, like a flat "T". It is connected with an RJ-45 network cable crystal head, a network cable crystal head and a twisted-pair network cable for connecting the network cable crystal head.
2. Optical fiber interface
For transmission media such as optical fiber lines, although this transmission medium has been used as early as the 100Base period, at that time, this type of 100M Internet was called 100Base-TX in order to be different from the widely used 100M twisted-pair Ethernet interface 100Base-TX. For "100Base-FX", the "F" is the first letter of "Fiber".
However, because at the speed of 100M at that time, compared with the use of traditional twisted-pair cables, the advantages were not obvious, not to mention that the price was much more expensive than twisted-pair cables, so optical fiber cables could not be widely used in the 100Mbps era. 1000Base technology has not been fully implemented until now. After all, at this speed, although there is a twisted pair material solution, its performance is not as good as that of optical fiber, and it has obvious advantages in connection distance, which is especially suitable for transmission networks. and LAN applications.
At present, the development trend of optical fiber transmission medium is very fast, and there are various optical fiber interfaces, but in the local area network industrial switch, the optical fiber interface is usually SC type, whether it is in 100Base-FX or 1000Base-FX network inside. The core of the SC interface is inside the connector. A 100Base-FX Internet SC fiber interface control module, a fiber optic industrial switch with 4 SC fiber interfaces.
The appearance of the SC interface of the industrial switch can be known. It is very similar to the RJ-45 interface, but the SC interface looks flatter and has a shallower gap. It mainly depends on the type of the touch processing chip. If there are 8 copper springs, it is an RJ-45 interface, and if there is a copper column inside, it is an SC optical fiber interface.
3. AUI interface and BNC
The AUI interface is specially used to connect the thick coaxial cable. Although this type of Internet is rare in the local area network now, there may still be some legacy thick coaxial cable dynamic password computer equipment in some well-known enterprise networks, so Some industrial switches also save a very small number of AUI interfaces to meet customer requirements to a greater extent. The AUI interface is a 15-pin "D"-shaped interface, similar to the display interface. This type of interface is also seen in many computer devices, such as wireless routers, and even in network servers, the AUI interface plan on routers.
BNC is an interface specially used to connect with thin coaxial cables. At this stage, industrial switches with this type of interface are very rare. However, some RJ-45 Ethernet interface industrial switches and network switches also provide a very small number of BNC interfaces, which are specially used for dynamic password data connections with thin coaxial cables as transmission media.
4. Console interface
We all know this interface, it is used to configure industrial switches, because only network management industrial switches will have it. And it should be noted that not all network-managed industrial switches have them, because there are many ways to configure industrial switches, such as according to Telnetcmd method, Web method, TFTP method, etc.
Although theoretically speaking, the standard configuration of industrial switches needs to be configured through the Console (control) port number, but the standard configuration of some brands of industrial switches is already configured when they leave the factory, and there is no need to carry out such as IP addresses, basic login names, etc. Standard configuration, so such a network management industrial switch does not need to provide this Console interface, and as far as it is concerned, most of them are still there. This kind of industrial switch generally only needs some high-end configuration through simple Telnet or Java-based Web methods.
However, there are also some industrial switches that have console ports, but it should be noted that not all industrial switches are equipped with the same console ports, and some use the same RJ-45 console port as Cisco wireless routers. And some use serial port communication as the Console interface.
The console ports of the two industrial switches are different, a "female" 9-pin "D"-shaped interface, and a "male" 9-pin "D"-shaped interface. They are called "DB-9" interfaces, but they are all equipped with industrial switches.
In addition to the above two types of industrial switch console tongue side, there is another interface that is mainly used for industrial switch configuration, that is the 25-pin "D"-shaped interface.
Regardless of whether the industrial switch adopts the DB-9 or DB-25 serial communication interface, or the RJ-45 interface, when configuring the industrial switch, it generally needs to be connected to the configuration computer (commonly referred to as a terminal device) through a dedicated Console line. ) serial interface, which is consistent with different types of Console ports of industrial switches.
There are also two types of console lines, one is a serial communication line, that is, both sides are serial communication interfaces (both sides are female or one end is male and the other end is female), and both sides can be inserted into the computer serial port for communication. and the Console port of the industrial switch; the other is a flat cable with RJ-45 connectors (RJ-45-to-RJ-45) on both sides. Since both sides of the flat cable are RJ-45 interfaces, it cannot be directly connected to the serial port of the computer. Therefore, an RJ-45-to-DB-9 (or RJ-45-to-DB-25) must also be used at the same time. Power Adapter. Generally speaking, a console cable and the corresponding DB-9 or DB-25 power adapter will be freely given in the wooden box of the industrial switch.
5. FDDI interface
In the early 100Mbps era, there was another type of FDDI network. Its Chinese name was "fiber optic cable distributed system data information interface". It is very obvious that its transmission medium is optical fiber cable, and its interface type is usually SC type. At this stage, because of its inconspicuous advantages, it has almost disappeared at this stage.
The above five types are some common interface types of industrial switches. Naturally, there will also be some uncommon interface types, such as the ATM Internet interface mentioned above. In addition, the types of network optical fiber interfaces are far more than SC. One, but in the industrial switches of the company's local area network, this kind of interface is difficult to come across, so it will not be introduced here.